England

In England, or better the British Islands, you find the most variety in types/patterns. They are sometimes called after a town or a famous maker. This does not always mean that the set is actually made in that town or by that maker. In other cases reference is made to a famous person or a chess club.


John Calvert worked from 1791 until his death in 1822, after which his widow Dorothy took over until her death in 1840. He is one of the top chess set makers, well known of his beautiful Knights. His "CALVERT 189 FLEET STT" stamp may be found on sets (on Rooks) or boxes.
This very early set is historically interesting because the Knights are in the 18th century manner instead of the later carved Knights. The long thread that connects the head to the stem is also seldom seen. Normally, Knights in such sets are monoblock or connected with a pin.
It is almost certainly that the wooden set has been made by Calvert, although it is not signed and came with a box in which St.George sets of presumably Jaques are seen. Most remarkable are the exceptionally well carved Knights, which are made of one piece of wood here. A feature seldom seen in wooden "St.George" type sets.

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  • England, by Calvert
  • 18th? or early 19th century
  • Ivory K 9.7; p 4.1
  • Box 16.5×12.2×6.8
  • Box signed "CALVERT 189 FLEET STT"
« of 6 »
  • England, by Calvert? "St.George"
  • 1st half 19th century
  • Boxwood + rosewood K 9.3; p 4.7
  • Box presumably by Jaques 22.1×14.5×7.1
  • Knights are made of one piece of wood!

George Merrifield is maybe the best turner of his time. His chess sets are outstanding in precision and beauty. As far as I know are all "Merrifield" sets actually made by George Merrifield and not by other manufacturers. George Merrifield worked from about 1819 till his dead in 1855.

« of 3 »
  • England, by George Merrifield
  • Early 19th century
  • Ivory K 8.9; p 4.0
  • Box 22.8×10.5×6.6
« of 4 »
  • England, by George Merrifield, "St.George" (pegged)
  • Early 19th century
  • Ivory K 4.2; p 2.3

"Lund" type sets are called after chess sets made by father Thomas (early 1800's until his death in 1843) and son William (throughout the rest of the 19th century) Lund, Cornhill London. We have seen signed sets of both. This type was very popular and has been made by several manufacturers. This particular set is larger, more chunky and has more discs on the pieces as usual.

« of 3 »
  • England, "Lund"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Ivory K 11,7; p 5.5

"Lund/Fisher" type chess sets are recognized by the open worked crowns of the King and Queen. Typically these sets are of large size. The box of this set is small and high, which could be the original box. Sorry, I have no picture of the box yet. The sets were most likely made by William Lund, although Samuel Fisher is listed as an Ivory Turner in the mid-1860's, so he could have made these sets as well.

  • England, "Lund/Fisher"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Ivory K 12.5; p 4.9
  • Box 23.9×10.9×15.9 (not pictured)

(John) Jaques of London is probably the most successful maker. At least longest existing, from 1795 till the present day, and run by the 8th generation now. Most famous, of course, is the "Staunton" pattern, which was patented on March 1, 1849, by Nathaniel Cooke, 198 Strand, London.

Note the misspelled name "Cook"

John and Nathaniel were related by the marriage of John's son John (II) with Nathaniel's daughter Harriet Ingram. Cooke was proprietor of "The  Illustrated London News" (1842-2003) in which Staunton had a column. As far as we know, Howard Staunton was the 1st sportsman to give his name to a product. It is not certain who is the designer of the Staunton pattern. It is not Staunton and probably also not Cooke. Most likely did John Jaques attribute to the design.

The codex of Frank Camaratta is an attempt to classify Jaques Staunton sets and the names "Anderssen" and "Broadbent" are from that codex and not names given by the Jaques of London company. The codex, however, is far from 100% decisive and Staunton connoisseur Alan Fersht does not use it any more (he left it out in the 2nd version of his book).

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  • England, by Jaques, "Staunton" ("late Anderssen")
  • ca. 1870
  • Boxwood + ebony K 7.4; p 3.7
  • Box 16.0×11.6×6.8
« of 6 »
  • England, by Jaques, "Staunton" ("Broadbent")
  • ca. 1935
  • Boxwood + ebony K 9.7; p 5.3
  • Box 21.8×16.8×10.8

Next to "Staunton", a lot of other chess set patterns is found in Jaques famous pattern book: "Barleycorn", "Calvert type", "Dublin", "Edinboro Upright", "St.George", etc. Jaques did invent and make a whole lot of other type of games as well. Below a few pages from their famous pattern book, what they are a bit mysterious about.

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  • England, by Jaques, "Nr. 24", "Barleycorn"
  • Early to mid 19th century
  • Bone K 13.6; p 4.9
« of 3 »
  • England, by (most likely) Jaques, "Calvert"
  • ca. 1840
  • Ivory K 8.4; p 3.9
  • Box 16.5×12.4×8.0

Jaques made travel sets of the "Whittington" type in sizes of 12-10-8-6 inch. I have several Whittington sets, but none are signed. See Travel (England) page for Whittington type examples.


Jaques made these "In Statu Quo" chess sets in different forms. There exists also a larger version. This one is an early example, with places for captured pieces, which dates it from 1857 onwards. The pieces are ivory, which was an option I believe. By default they were made of bone. That this is an early set, around 1860, can be seen at the very thin pins that easily bend if you lock the pieces while not completely down. Maybe that is the reason that Jaques switched to pieces with significantly thicker pins. Also the holes in the board are smaller, because I noticed that pieces with the thicker pins don't fit well and only can be placed with brute force.

« of 7 »
  • England, by Jaques, "In Statu Quo"
  • ca. 1860
  • Ivory K 1.4; p 1.3 (without pins)
  • Board 23.0×29.5×2.9 (open)
  • Slipcase 15.9×23.9×7.2

F.H.Ayres. The business and factory of Frederick Henry Ayres, manufacturer, was started 1864 and located at 10 Baldwin’s Place, Leather Lane, London EC by 1865, later at 71 to 75 Red Lion Street, Clerkenwell by 1869 to 1877 and finally at 111 Aldersgate Street, London, EC from 1877. It became F.H.Ayres Ltd. c1905 (known mainly for outdoor games). Later taken over by Slazenger (c1948).
F.H.Ayres made a range of different sets. Here some examples. Other sets of F.H.Ayres, like Barleycorn can be found at other England pages. A rare signed travel set is on Travel (England) page.

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  • England, by F.H.Ayres, "Dublin/St.George influenced"
  • ca. 1900
  • Tagua nut (vegatable ivory) K 8.6; p 4.3
« of 2 »
  • England, by F.H.Ayres, "Staunton"
  • ca. 1930
  • Catalin K 7.6; p 3.5
  • Box 18.2×13.3×6.8

Asser & Sherwin, makers, 81 Strand, London. Grandfather Thomas Sherwin (1776-1863) was originally a bookbinder, but became a backgammon table and chess board manufacturer in about 1820. Father Thomas Sherwin (1802-1881) was also a dealer in games. Charles Sheppard Sherwin (1833-1872) formed in 1860 a partnership with his cousin James Asser (1836-1924) - 'Asser&Sherwin'. They traded until 1882 (despite the death of Charles Sherwin in 1872) at premises at 80-81 Strand and Oxford Street, selling travel goods, 'fancies', games and sporting equipment. Charles death certificate describes him as a Bagatelle Board Maker. On the closure of the company James Asser went on to found Turnbull and Asser the Jermyn Street shirtmakers. Recently (Sep. 2020) I found a lid of a box with their logo. I have only the lid and no box. Also don't know what was in the box originally.

  • ASSER&SHERWIN
  • MAKERS
  • 81 STRAND.LONDON

Thomas De La Rue founded the print business in 1813. Soon the company became famous because of their playing cards, a division sold to John Waddington in 1969! In 1853 they printed the world's first surface printed stamp and in 1860 its first paper money (for Mauritius). In 1874 they opened a new factory in Bunhill Row, London. In 1881 they entered the pen market. In 1921 the De La Rue family left the business and the company became publicly owned. Today their main business is banknotes, UK Passport and software for secure data storage and analysis. On De La Rue site is a lot more of information.

Of interest to us are their Wallet sets and Stud sets. Such stud set has a clamp which can have different inscriptions: "TDLR", "TdLR" or "DLRLd". "Thomas De La Rue" or "De La Rue Limited", I think. In 1958 the company dropped Thomas in their name. Question is whether these sets could have been made after 1958 as well ? I have been told that's not the case.

De La RUE factory at Bunhill Row opened in 1874 and demolished on September 11th 1940

The name on the building is: "THOMAS DE LA RUE AND COMPANY" and it looks like that in the 2nd picture a small "Limited" has been added to that. Unfortunately the pictures are not clear enough to be sure.

De La Rue in 1921

The name here is "THOs. DE LA RUE & Co, Limited".


B&Co. The origins of B&Co. are shrouded in mystery. To this date, no one has been able to uncover any information on this company. What can be determined, based on the style of the chessmen, type style and the storage boxes produced to house them is that B&Co. started producing Staunton chessmen in the mid to late 1850s. B&Co. stampings are found on their hardware, such as their hinges. Their sets are rare.

« of 2 »
  • England, by B&Co. London, "Staunton"
  • Late 19th century
  • Boxwood + ebony K 7.4; p 4.0

There are a lot of other makers or retailers, like Asprey, J.Barr, BCC (founded by W. Moffat and W. Hughes, making chessmen from 1891 to about 1907, well known by the use of Xylonite, a celluloid), H.Dixon, C.Hastilow, W.Howard, W.Leuchars (probably the 1st retailer of Jaques Staunton sets), Wedgwood, R.Whitty, to name a few. I do not have examples of all of these makers/retailers, but you can find some of them elsewhere on my site.

Here some "Staunton" sets of unknown makers. The large 41/3" ivory set is a beautiful set, but someone wanted us to believe it is made by Jaques and crudely marked it as such, but it is not a Jaques set. Another imperfection is one white Knight that's missing a little piece of its jaw. The box is not a chess box, I think, and is not in best condition. The 32/3" bone set is rather scarce. It is very much rarer as wooden ones, and even more rare as the ivory ones, especially in this size which is large for a bone set. I think the box it came in is original. The 21/2" small wooden set is also of an unknown maker, but is not that uncommon. Note the King without cross.

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  • England, "Staunton"
  • 19th century
  • Ivory K 11.1; p 4.7
  • Box pp.p×qq.q×r.r
« of 6 »
  • England, "Staunton"
  • Late 19th century
  • Bone K 9.3; p 4.3
  • Original box 15.9×11.2×8.0
« of 2 »
  • England, "Staunton"
  • Late 19th century
  • Boxwood + ebony K 6.5; p 3.5

20th century makers Mildred Rose and Britain made lead sets based on the "Staunton" design. You find them on "The Rose Chess" and Britain pages. On the Plastic page more "Staunton" sets of manufacturers like Grays of Cambridge and House Martin. Some of unknown makers as well. On the latter page is a plastic travel set by F.H.Ayres as well (see also Travel  (England)).


On my Google photo pages more photos of English pieces.

I call this set "Old English". However this name is also used for sets better known as "St.George". Actually, there is no common accepted naming convention for sets like these. Maybe because these sets are extremely rare.

« of 11 »
  • England, "Old English"
  • 1st half 18th century
  • Ivory K 6.9; p 3.5

The "George Washington" sets are called that way, because George Washington did own a set that is similar. Typical characteristics are urn shapes in stems/finials, small mitres on Bishops, high arched Knights with ears pointing backwards and Rooks tapered in one line and with brickwork. The 1st set is identical to the set in Liddell's book. Note that the 3rd set has atypical Rooks. Maybe that set is of a bit later date like early 19th.

The set of George Washington (picture taken from the book of M. Liddell). The Washington pattern is named after this set.
  • England, "George Washington"
  • Late 18th century
  • Ivory K 8.6; p 3.6
« of 6 »
  • England, "George Washington"
  • Late 18th century
  • Bone K 8.5; p 4.0
  • Box 16.7×11.3×7.3
« of 5 »
  • England, "George Washington"
  • Late 18th century
  • Bone K 10.7; p 4.6

These "Spiked" sets were made in the 18th century, but I'm not sure when the production stopped. Probably early 19th century. They exist in a wide variety. This set is a nice example of one of the later sets of this type.

« of 4 »
  • England, "Spiked"
  • 18th-19th century
  • Bone K 7.8; p 3.5

This "Playing" set was made in the 18th or early 19th century.
I do not know a better description. If you do, please let me know...

« of 3 »
  • England
  • 18th-19th century
  • Ivory K 8.6; p 3.8

The "Calvert type" design would be traced back to 15th century German designs, but I'm not sure about that. The sets are often wrongly attributed to John Calvert, who is not the only maker. Other well known makers of the type are George Merrifield, Thomas Lund and John Jaques, most likely the maker of this set. Note that sets made by John Calvert are also called "Calvert", but then not this specific flower decorated type is meant.

« of 3 »
  • England, by (most likely) Jaques, "Calvert"
  • ca. 1840
  • Ivory K 8.4; p 3.9

This cute little "Dublin" set was obtained Oct. 2019 and is rather new  in my collection. This type is hard to find and normally not this small. Condition however is excellent and it has a box which is most likely original. Unfortunately an unknown maker, but it is one of my favourites.

The vegetable ivory set has a certain "Dublin" influence, as well as some "St.George". The vegetable ivory of this set is actually the inner part of the Tagua nut found in South America. Until today it is used for all kinds of objects such as chess sets and also for jewellery.

« of 8 »
  • England, "Dublin"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Wood K 6.0; p 3.5
  • Box 15.2×10.0×5.5
« of 7 »
  • England, by F.H.Ayres, "Dublin/St.George influenced"
  • ca. 1900
  • Tagua nut (vegatable ivory) K 8.6; p 4.3

This set is called "Upright". These attractive sets were designed for the Edinburgh chess club by Lord Jon Hay in the 1840’s. Jaques made sets called "Edinboro Upright", but they are also referred to as "Northern Upright".

The 2nd set listed here is not in the traditional "Upright" manner, but mostly called so. One can certainly say it is "Upright inspired". Dating is also disputable: some say early 19th century, but others say late 19th century. I tend to believe the later dating.

« of 5 »
  • England, "Upright"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Wood K 8.3; p 4.4
« of 3 »
  • England, "Upright inspired"
  • Late (or early?) 19th century
  • Bone K 8.4; p 4.5

The name of "St.George" sets is derived from the London's chess club "St.George", where these kind of figures were used. They are definitely the most widespread type of sets in Britain, apart from the later Staunton sets.

Here some examples of British "St.George" sets. These are often called "Old English" as well, but in my opinion that name is better to reserve for the English designs of the 18th century.

The 1st set is almost certainly made by Calvert, although it is not signed and came with a box in which St.George sets of presumably Jaques are seen. It is one of my favourites because of the most beautiful Knights I have seen on English sets of this type. The Knights are made in one piece, which is rare in this kind of set.

The following other 5 sets are more common sets of unknown makers. Set nr.3 has a bishop and pawn replaced. Maybe the last has been made by Jaques?

« of 6 »
  • England, by Calvert? "St.George"
  • 1st half 19th century
  • Boxwood + rosewood K 9.3; p 4.7
  • Box presumably by Jaques 22.1×14.5×7.1
  • Knights are made of one piece of wood!
« of 6 »
  • England, "St.George"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Boxwood + rosewood K 9.1; p 3.9
« of 2 »
  • England, "St.George"
  • 2nd half 19th century
  • Boxwood + ebony K 7.9; p 3.5
« of 3 »
  • England, "St.George"
  • 19th century
  • Boxwood + ebony K 9.2; p 3.9
« of 3 »
  • England, "St.George"
  • 19th century
  • Boxwood + ebony K 10.6; p 4.3
« of 3 »
  • Engeland, by Jaques? "St. George"
  • Early 20th century (or earlier?)
  • Boxwood K 8.5; p 3.6

The "slope Knight" set is in fact a cheaper variant of the "St. George" pattern as no cutting is required apart from some simple incisions.

« of 2 »
  • England, "St.George with slope knights"
  • ca. 1900
  • Wood K 5.6; p 2.4
  • Original box 11.8×8.5×4.8

You see the "st.George" pattern also in travel sets. These are pieces of a set by Merrifield.

« of 4 »
  • England, by George Merrifield, "St.George" (pegged)
  • Early 19th century
  • Ivory K 4.2; p 2.3

I got information of this travel set sold under the name "THE TRAVELLERS' CHESS BOARD, WITH CHESS MEN COMPLETE." by W.H.Smith & Son, 136, Strand, London and the railway station. W.H.Smith were sellers of a wide range of goods at railway stations from the late 1840's. It's believed that the sets were made over a long period and the turned pieces changed in later years. Maybe the sets were made by a London maker for W.H.Smith?

« of 3 »
  • England, by Jaques or W.Howard? "St.George"
  • Mid 19th century (sold as 1900)
  • Bone K 3.3; p 1.6
  • Box/board 15.3×7.7×2.8

This vegetable ivory set has a certain "Dublin" influence, as well as some "St.George". The vegetable ivory of this set is actually the inner part of the Tagua nut found in South America. Until today it is used for all kinds of objects such as chess sets and also for jewellery.

« of 7 »
  • England, by F.H.Ayres, "Dublin/St.George influenced"
  • ca. 1900
  • Tagua nut (vegatable ivory) K 8.6; p 4.3

Next sets are all "Barleycorn" sets. Strictly spoken, the Jaques "Nr.24" set isn't a "Barleycorn", because there is no real barleycorn grain motive except for some leaves. There is also a kind of ropetwist pattern on the barrel. But it is commonly accepted to call it a "Barleycorn" set. The other 2 sets do have a clear barleycorn grain motive on their barrel.

The essence for the name is in fact decoration with the grain. But often you see leaves as well. Occasionally you see sets with an acanthus motive, which mistakenly are called "Barleycorn". Another  mistake, in my opinion, is that these sets (especially when they have no decoration) are called "Ropetwist" by many. But the latter I like to be reserved for the scarce set as you see on the "Ropetwist" page, where the central drum has a decoration simulating a twisted rope and not only have the sight of a coiled rope as in the plain Barleycorns.

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  • England, by Jaques, "Nr. 24", "Barleycorn"
  • Early to mid 19th century
  • Bone K 13.6; p 4.9
« of 3 »
  • England, "Barleycorn"
  • Early to mid 19th century
  • Bone K 10.0; p 4.1
« of 4 »
  • England, by F.H.Ayres, "Barleycorn"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Bone K 13.3; p 4.7

Next sets are all "plain Barleycorn" sets. They are still called "Barleycorn" by most people, although there is no barleycorn motive. But the shape is alike the decorated "Barleycorn" sets. These sets are very common, except that the last set of the four has a less common pattern.

« of 2 »
  • England, by Jaques? "plain Barleycorn"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Bone K 9.0; p 3.4
« of 2 »
  • England, by F.H.Ayres, "plain Barleycorn"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Bone K 12.1; p 4.5
« of 4 »
  • England, by F.H.Ayres, "plain Barleycorn"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Bone (repainted black) K 11.1; p 4.1
« of 2 »
  • England, "plain Barleycorn"
  • ca. 1860
  • Bone K 9.3; p 3.8
  • Box 17.7×11.4×9.5

This set is a "Ropetwist" set, called so because of the decoration that simulates a twisted rope. In this set at the upper and lower side of the central drum of the King and Queen. Sometimes it is on rooks as well. Very often that name is, in my opinion mistakenly, used for ordinary "(plain) Barleycorn" sets with have a central drum looking like a coiled rope. On the other hand "Ropetwist" sets aren't recognized always as such. I think it is because these sets are extremely scarce. I have seen only a couple of them.

« of 5 »
  • England, "Ropetwist"
  • Mid 19th century
  • Bone (or ivory?) K 9.3; p 3.4
  • Box (chinese!) 13.8×11.4×9.1

Next sets are "Playing" sets, without a specific naming convention. One or two of them may be called "Barleycorn" by some, but they are not. In auction catalogues you see always just "Playing set", so I do not know a better description.

If you know, please let me know...

The secret of the first set is that it actually has been composed of 2 sets. The Kings, Knights and Rooks are of a Dorothy Calvert set and the Queens (which actually are Kings!), Bishops and pawns of a Captain Cook set. It came in a nice box, which is not pictured (yet). I bought this set recently and should have looked better. Even if you have some experience, then always be alert. Be warned!

The last set in this series has been made by F.H.Ayres and could have been placed in the "small Playing" sets category as well. The shape is very similar, but it just has some bigger proportions. Note that this same set was mistakenly called "Barleycorn".

« of 6 »
  • England, composed set
  • ca. 1830
  • Ivory K 8.2; p 3.6